Bros And Bras: Everything You Could Want To Know About Man Boobs

As a little kid growing up, I was afraid of a few major things.

One was rejection, whether it dealt with the girl I had a crush on in the back of my geometry class or making the baseball team, after a week of busting my ass at tryouts. Nobody likes getting rejected.

Another thing I was afraid of was failure. It never felt good coming home to mom after a big math test, with a 54 circled in red marker next to a good effort — but see me after class! I mean, those werent the types of results that got hung on the fridge — I can tell you that much.

And, finally, I was utterly horrified by the prospect of growing man boobs.

Yeah, yeah, have your laugh. I understand its a funny term. And sure, today, as a 23-year-old, I admit this seems like a somewhat petty fear. But as a young guy who attended many a pool party back in the day, I can assure you having moobs was quite the cross to bear.

Ive always had a rather slender physique, so thankfully I was never forced to deal with the matter myself. Nevertheless, I’ve always empathized with the guy at the pool party jack-knifing into the deep end with his T-shirt still on to avoid getting ridiculed for some stubborn flab in his chest area.

But any guys who have dealt with the phenomenon firsthand know that man boobs can be an embarrassing physical attribute to cope with. I could only assume that the female equivalent to having moobs would be labia that hung so low they appear to be a small set of testes.

After catching wind of some growing curiosity around the office pertaining to what — on a more anatomical level — man boobs really are, I decided to do some digging of my own. So, like the kid with his shirt on in the pool, lets dive right in.

According to Medical News Today, the formal term used to describe the selling of breasts in men is gynecomastia, which is more common in newborn males, boys during puberty and older men.

People might make fun of teenage guys for having man boobs because everyone thinks man boobs only come when someone is too chubby, but thats not always the case. Most of the time, adolescent guys will develop gynecomastia due to a hormone imbalance that occurs during puberty.

As one mens health blog called 50ish.orgexplains, as young men begin to start producing more testosterone to help promote muscle growth, some of that excess testosterone will inadvertently get converted into estrogen.

This estrogen buildup is usually only temporary. And while it may result in the formation of some, well, breasts, theyll usually only be there for a couple of awkward months.

So if youre a teenage reader, dont run out and buy any brassieres just yet.

As for very young — and very old — men, the issue can also be hormone-related.

For newborn boys, its likely that theyre still carrying some of their mothers hormones, which explains their possible bosoms.

Old men, on the other hand, will sadly see some of their testosterone decline as their age increases — so thats why grandpa might look a little saggy in the chest, too.

Now, for men in their 20s and 30s, man boobs can surely sprout up as a result of poor fitness and life habits. As The Sun highlights, regular ol obesity and drug use can surely lead to moobs in younger guys.

For the majority of people who deal with man boobs, theyre usually just fat. When we gain weight, some of us gain it in our love handles, some of us gain it in our guts and a good portion of us gain it in our chests. What makes this even more frustrating is that fat stored in the chest is usually tough fat to burn off.

While many guys think that doing an excessive amount of pushups or bench press reps will magically convert that fat into rock hard muscle, thats usually not the best plan of action. According to AskMen, high intensity interval training (HIIT) is usually the most efficient way of burning unwanted fat in the chest.

HIIT is the best way to target — and zap — your moobs. Because its so intense, your body will expend a great deal of calories — even after you are finished working out — in order to repair and rebuild the muscle tissues that have been damaged.

Another reason you might be dealing with man boobs is drug use.

As The Sun continues to note, steroid-use is a common culprit. I remember a few years back, before he actually admitted to using steroids, paparazzi snapped some photos of A-Rod flaunting a pretty respectably sized rack on the beach.

So if youre looking to hit 50-plus home runs this year, dont say I didnt warn you.

Interestingly enough, marijuana use has also been linked with man boobs — albeit controversially.

If youre one who likes to indulge in munchies, like Chappelle and Co. in the movie Half Baked, its more likely that the flattened box of Dominos on your floor is responsible for the fat in your chest, not the joint you smoked.

Although, like I said, the two certainly might be connected.

The bottom line, however, is that man boobs, though slightly embarrassing to have in your younger years, are fairly normal. Whether they’re temporary products of your adolescent hormones or a result of poor diet, they’re not the end of the world.

Unsightly? Perhaps. But they’re usually nothing a touch of cardio can’t resolve — if you stay committed.

Top 10 Badass Ancient Weapons

Long before drive by shootings and police stabbings, our ancestors used some truly badass weapons against each other. Our ancient ancestors seemed to have a knack for finding the most gruesome and painful ways to attack each other – you could even argue that no modern weapons come close to being able to inflict the same level of suffering as these ancient weapons. You might even be forgiven for being thankful for guns with their quick deaths when you read this list of top 10 badass weapons.

This is a list of the most badass weapons in ancient history. This list excludes weapons beyond the medieval period.



Culverins were medieval guns. These were often used by horsemen in a medieval kind of drive-by shooting. The hand culverin were made of a simple smoothbore tube, closed at one end except for a small hole designed to fire the gunpowder. The tube was held in place by a wooden piece which could be held under the arm. The tube was loaded with gunpowder and lead bullets. The culverin was fired by inserting a lighted cord into the hole. In the image above, the hand culverin is between two small canons.

These hand culverins soon evolved into heavier portable culverins, around 40kg in weight, which required a swivel for support and aiming. Such culverins were further equiped with back-loading sabots to facilitate reloading, and were often used on ships – a precursor to the modern canon.


A caltrop is a weapon made up of two (or more) sharp nails or spines arranged so that one of them always points upward from a stable base (for example, a tetrahedron). Caltrops serve to slow down the advance of horses, war elephants, and human troops. It was said to be particularly effective against the soft feet of camels.

Weapons Caltrop

In modern times Caltrops have been used at times during labor strikes and other disputes. Such devices were used by some to destroy the tires of management and replacement workers. Because of the prevalence of caltrops during the Caterpillar strike of the mid-1990s, the state of Illinois passed a law making the possession of such devices a misdemeanor.

Iron caltrops were used as early as 331 BC at Gaugamela according to Quintus Curtius. They were known to the Romans as tribulus or sometimes as Murex ferreus, meaning ‘jagged iron’. The Roman writer Vegetius said:

The Roman soldiers rendered [the armed chariots] useless chiefly by the following contrivance: at the instant the engagement began, they strewed the field of battle with caltrops, and the horses that drew the chariots, running full speed on them, were infallibly destroyed. A caltrop is a device composed of four spikes or points arranged so that in whatever manner it is thrown on the ground, it rests on three and presents the fourth upright.

Punji sticks and caltrops were used in the Vietnam War, sometimes with poison or manure on the points.


Back in the day, you had to scale the walls of a city or castle before you could rape and pillage. This led someone to the brilliant idea that you could pour boiling oil on top of the people trying to climb in.


Oil was not difficult to come by as the women would all donate their cooking oil (a small price to pay to keep their privates private). If the town ran out of oil, they would use boiling water, or other easily obtainable things like sand.

Castles were often built with special holes in the sides to make it easier to pour this blistering liquid on unsuspecting climbers. They were so effective that they were called murder-holes. These holes were also useful for firing arrows at attackers or throwing rocks. Similar holes, called machicolations, were often located in the curtain walls of castles and city walls. The parapet would project over corbels so that holes would be located over the exterior face of the wall, and arrows could be shot at, rocks dropped on, or boiling water poured over, any attackers near the wall.

Various sources claim that molten lead was also used as a weapon in this way, but there is no historical evidence to support that view.


We all know that crossbows are badass – but what about the arbalest? The Arbalest was a larger version of the crossbow and it had a steel prod (“bow”). Since an arbalest was much larger than earlier crossbows, and because of the greater tensile strength of steel, it had a greater force. The strongest windlass-pulled arbalests could have up to 22 kN (5000 lbf) strength and be accurate up to 500m. A skilled arbalestier (arblaster) could shoot two bolts per minute. Arbalests were sometimes considered inhumane or unfair weapons, since an inexperienced crossbowman could use one to kill a knight who had a lifetime of training.


The use of crossbows in European warfare dates back to Roman times and is again evident from the battle of Hastings until about 1500 AD. They almost completely superseded hand bows in many European armies in the twelfth century for a number of reasons. Although a longbow had greater range, could achieve comparable accuracy and faster shooting rate than an average crossbow, crossbows could release more kinetic energy and be used effectively after a week of training, while a comparable single-shot skill with a longbow could take years of practice. Crossbows were eventually replaced in warfare by gunpowder weapons, although early guns had slower rates of fire and much worse accuracy than contemporary crossbows.

This weapon was so badass, that Pope Innocent II (pictured to the left) banned them at the second Lateran Council in 1139:

We prohibit under anathema that murderous art of crossbowmen and archers, which is hateful to God, to be employed against Christians and Catholics from now on.

Today the crossbow often has a complicated legal status due to the possibility of lethal use and its similarities with both firearms.


The Hunga Munga is an iron fighting tool named by the African tribes south of Lake Tchad; also called “danisco” by the Marghi, “goleyo” by the Musgu, and “njiga” by the Bagirmi. It is handheld weapon and has a metal pointed blade with a curved back section and separate spike near the handle. The weapon can be used in hand to hand combat (Melee) although it is normally thrown with a spinning action.


These African iron weapons are thrown with a rotatory motion (similar to an Australian boomerang), and cause deep wounds with their projecting blades. They come in many shapes and sizes and they were (and are) used across Africa from the Upper Nile on the east through Central Africa by Lake Tchad to the Africans of the Gaboon in West Africa. In parts of Central Africa, these weapons are shaped like a bird’s head.

This weapon is used in the Role-Playing game Mage The Ascension by the Euthanatos characters for their magical rituals. Buffy (from Buffy the Vampire Slayer – image to the right) used one of these from time to time to battle demons that enslave their victims and force them to give up their identities. The hunga munga was used in the opening credits of the show.

Fomfr Morning Star

The Morning Star (also sometimes called the goedendag or Holy Water sprinkler) is a term used for a variety of club-like weapons with one or more sharp spikes sticking out of it. It would normally have one big spike poking out of the top with a bunch of smaller ones around the sides. These are often thought of as peasant weapons, but there were also very high quality ones made for the rich guys.


These weapons were most effective when you hit someone on the head with them. The Holy Water sprinkler, was a morning star popular with the English army from the sixteenth century and made in series by professional smiths. Some of them were over 6 foot long! This was the favored weapon of King John of Bohemia who was blind – he would just sit on his horse and swing the thing until he hit someone (preferably one of the bad guys).

In the game Mortal Kombat Deception, the character Havik (in the picture to the right) weilds a morning star in his form of armed combat. The Morning Star is considered to be a Holy Weapon in Dungeons and Dragons. Of course, when not engaged in battle, this was a useful tool for keeping thine wyfe and kids in line, or as a backscratcher. Badass!


One of the upsides to siege warfare in the middle ages was the huge number of dead bodies from people who had died of plague or other mysterious illnesses. A very handy use for these bodies was biological warfare! Most towns would barricade themselves behind huge walls that could not be breached by the enemy – but they often relied on outside sources of fresh water. This is where the bodies come in. You could dump a few bodies in the rivers leading in to the town and all you had to do was wait! A perfect opportunity to sit back and watch some jousting.


After a while, the plague would infect the town and you have a great victory! Obviously you can’t rape and pillage too soon, but at least you didn’t lose any men (except maybe the poor guys that had to carry the bodies to the river). In the image to the left, we see Jane Godbotherer being treated for the plague. She will eventually end up being used as a biological weapon.

Plague infection in a human occurs when a person is bitten by a flea that has been infected by biting a rodent that itself has been infected by the bite of a flea carrying the disease.

This type of warfare was used before the advent of catapults which were more much more effective at infecting towns with disease.


With the advent of the trebuchet (a very high powered catapult) came the realization that plagued bodies were no longer needed to slowly kill people in a fortified town or castle – you could simply catapult a rotting or diseased animal over the ramparts – or for truly fast results, you could fling over a few beehives. Dead horses were a popular weapon in this form of biological warfare, though anything filled with disease would do the trick.

The counterweight trebuchet appeared in both Christian and Muslim lands around the Mediterranean in the twelfth century. It could fling three-hundred-pound (140 kg) projectiles at high speeds into enemy fortifications. Trebuchets were invented in China in about the 4th century BC, came to Europe in the 6th century AD, and did not become obsolete until the 16th century, well after the introduction of gunpowder. Trebuchets were far more accurate than other medieval catapults.

The trebuchet could launch projectiles a distance of over half a mile (over 750 m).


Picture, if you will, a slow day on the seas. The water is calm, the sky is blue, when suddenly, from out of nowhere, it starts raining fire! You discover that you have just been engaged by a Greek warship and they have flame-throwers! Yes – that’s right, the Greeks used flame-throwers in their naval battles from around 670 AD. So what do you do when you are being fired on by flame-throwers? According to one witness:

“Every time they hurl the fire at us, we go down on our elbows and knees, and beseech Our Lord to save us from this danger.”

Chinese Flamethrower

In other words, not much! The recipe for Greek fire was a closely guarded secret – even now no one really knows what it was made of. Modern scientists have ventured a few guesses: petroleum, niter, sulfur; or naphtha, quicklime, sulfur; or phosphorus and saltpeter. Regardless of the recipe, the stuff was heated in a cauldron on the ship and squirted out a giant syringe at the enemy.

But… the Chinese beat them to it

In the 3rd century BC, a flammable liquid substance was found in the Gao Nu County, located in the northeast portion of what is now the Shaanxi Province. This “flammable liquid” (called Meng Huo You) was probably petroleum that had seeped through the ground and was floating above the local waters. Ever the ingenious people, the Chinese put it to good use in destroying towns built with timber.

In 900 AD, the Chinese also invented the Pen Huo Qi – a piston based naphtha flamethrower. The double-piston pump flamethrower was carefully documented and illustrated in the Chinese military manual known as the Wujing Zongyao (image on the right). It was, of course, used in siege warfare.


I am sure most will agree that it doesn’t get more badass than this. A scythed chariot was a war chariot with one or more blades mounted on both ends of the axle. The scythed chariot was pulled by a team of four horses and manned by a crew of up to three men, one driver and two warriors. Theoretically the scythed chariot would plow through infantry lines, cutting combatants in half or at least opening gaps in the line which could be exploited. It was difficult to get horses to charge into the tight phalanx formation of the Greek/Macedonian hoplites (infantry). The scythed chariot avoided this inherent problem for cavalry, by the scythe cutting into the formation, even when the horses avoided the men.

The blades extended horizontally for a meter on the sides of the chariot. Xenophon, an eyewitness, describing the scythed chariots at the battle of Cunaxa says, “These had thin scythes extending at an angle from the axle and also under the driver’s seat, turned towards the ground”.

A scythed chariot can be seen in the chariot race of the movie Ben Hur, operated by Messala (here called a “Greek chariot” or a “beaked chariot.”). Scythed chariots are seen in the first Colosseum scene in the movie Gladiator. In the film Alexander by Oliver Stone, scythed chariots are shown charging into Macedonian phalanx during the beginning of Battle of Gaugamela scene.

This article is licensed under the GFDL because it contains quotations from the Wikipedia articles: Crossbow, Caltrop, Trebuchet, Scythed Chariot

Watch A Legendary Baseball Manager Shake His Butt

1. It all started with Terry Francona just running a team meeting at Indians spring training. But then he hears something.

2. And he can’t stop himself anymore. He just has to dance.

3. Look at these moves.

4. He adds in the arms.


6. At that point it just turns into a Harlem Shake video. But dancing Terry is great.

Porn Stars Reveal The Hilarious And Unusual Origins Of Their Stage Names

Oh, porn stars, sometimes I forget you’re just regular people with regular names once the makeup’s scrubbed off and the clothes come on.

In one of the latest videos fromthe porn star experts over at WoodRocket, porn stars explain how they got their stage names.

Becausethe porn stars surveyed, including men and women, are so diverse, their explanations totally run the gamut. Some explanations are extremely specific, some are downright weird and some seem to only make sense coming out of the mouth of a porn star.

Some namespractically came to be by accident or were given to the porn stars by other people, like publicists and agents.

For instance, one porn star got the first part of his name from the movie “Snatch” and the second part of his name from David Bowie’s music.

Another porn star chose her first name from the name of her childhood soccer team and as well her name’s high alphabetical ranking, and she got her last name because, as she said, “I enjoy myrecreational smoking.”

Another porn star literally took her name straight from the “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles” franchise, so you can see the names truly come from all over.

I don’t think any of these porn stars got their names in this way, but I always heard a fun and easy way to get your stage namewas to take your middle name (or first name) and put it together with the name of the street you grew up on. If you play this game with friends, you always get the wackiest stage names.

Look out, world,Giacomo Leete is here stay! (Please, no one ever call me that, I beg you.)

If you’re feeling as daring as I am, let me know your stage name in the comments! I’m sure it can’t be half as embarrassing as mine.

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35 Signs You Were A Basic 2000s B*tch

Tiffany & Co.Tiffany & Co.

Tiffany & Co.

This article was originally posted on on December 1, 2014, with the title, “35 Signs You Were a Basic 2000s B*tch.” It has been republished with permission. 

1. You wore your matching Tiffany heart tag necklace and bracelet with pride.

But, you STOPPED wearing them by 2003 because you were like SO over it.

2. You were a frequent buyer of the five for $20 panties deal at Victoria’s Secret.


You were like a walking advertisement for the VS Pink collection; “PINK” was written across your ass everywhere you went.

3. You had and regularly wore a Von Dutch hat.


Why? No one knows.

4. Your favorite movie was “Mean Girls.”


Mean Girls

And, hey, it probably still is.

5. The number of skirts you owned was needlessly high.


And, the majority of them were either short denim skirts (10 points if they were ripped)…or ruffled skirts. SO MANY SKIRTS. I blame “Mean Girls” (see: photo from #4).

6. You had highlights that made you look like a zebra.


Your mom said no, but for some reason, you didn’t listen.

7. You put Dashboard Confessional or Taking Back Sunday lyrics in your AIM profile.


This showed how *scene* and *emotional* you were.

maybe you will, maybe you won't, maybe go f*ck yourselfmaybe you will, maybe you won't, maybe go f*ck yourself

Or, you featured a 90s rock song directed toward someone who probably did not know you existed.

7. You layered everything.


Polos on Polos — because you rocked that double popped collar like a f*cking boss circa 2004.

Your collared shirts came from abercrombie, Abercrombie & Fitch (they’re different, duh), Hollister, Lacoste, Ralph Lauren, American Eagle (ugh). You also layered tank tops. And t-shirts. And everything. It was weird.

8. You enjoyed the songs playing in Hollister.



9. You owned army pants.

…And flip flops.


10. You lived and died by your super cool flip phone.


Which was obviously your Razr, or your Nextel if you were lucky. *BEEP, BEEP*

11. After school and extracurriculars were done for the day, you spent your free time sitting and staring at your computer screen, waiting for your crush to sign on.


Would you IM him? No. Would he IM you? No. But what a f*cking thrill, right?

12. You read the “Gossip Girl” series.

Ughhh, your life was so lame in comparison. Why did you have to grow up NORMALLY?

13. You hair was STRAIGHT AS F*CK.



14. The only time your hair wasn’t straight was when you “sprunched” it with “sprunch” spray.


15. You made awesome mix CDs with all the songs you downloaded from Limewire & Kazaa.


You also took it one step further and wrote the name of each song on the CD in pretty colors.

16. You had an iPod Nano.


But this didn’t stop you from making mix CDs.

17. Probably the hardest decision you had to make in the 2000s was who would be in your Top 8.


MySpace made life SO HARD.

18. You actually got the Abercrombie and Fitch catalog.


Like, it was sent to your house.

19. The more rips in your jeans, the better.

ripped jeansripped jeans

Oh, and then add some random writing to the jeans and you’ve got THE PERFECT PAIR.

20. Uggs over your jeans and folded was the look you went for every day.

Image 2014-12-04 at 10.26.52 AMImage 2014-12-04 at 10.26.52 AM

Don’t forget your North Face!!!

21. You loooved Dane Cook.


He was, like, so funny.

22. BBM was the only way you communicated during the late 2000s.


Blackberry life!

23. Paris Hilton was your spirit animal.


“The Simple Life” — LOLOLOL, so funny.

24. You remember when Polaroid cameras came back for a hot second, and you obvi had one.


They printed instantly so you could tape pics to your agenda right away!!!

25. You rocked folded, off-the-shoulder shirts like it was nobody’s business.


They were, like, from the 80s or something. Chic.

26. You never, ever took off your Livestrong bracelet.


27. Your favorite show was “The OC” and you thought you were Summer Roberts.

The OC - Ten Years LaterThe OC - Ten Years Later

And, you thought you were dating Seth Cohen. Or, maybe that was just me… IDK.

28. You always rocked a French manicure.


Because, why dare to be different when you can look like everyone else? #The2000sMotto

29. You have grinded to “Get Low.”


And I don’t mean in Vegas when you saw Lil Jon DJ at Encore a few months ago (LOL, just me?); I mean at the *middle school dance.* Sh*t was cray.

30. Your Juicy sweatsuit was a way of life.


If you didn’t have one, who even were you?

31. You had no idea whether it was, in fact, chicken or fish, either.


“But, how can tuna be chicken of the sea???” God, Jessica, YOU’RE SO STUPID.

32. “Bring It On” made you want to become a cheerleader.


33. “Laguna Beach” was your sh*t.


34. You loved Hilary Duff and Lindsay Lohan… and so did Aaron Carter.


You also loved Aaron Carter.

35. You were basically in a giant love affair with logos.


Your Dooney & Bourke bag. Your Coach bag. Your graphic tees. Your branded polos. You were a walking advertisement. And YOU F*CKING LOVED IT.

21 Beauty Tricks For Makeup Addicts In Training

Highlighter is gonna change your cheekbones’ life. Inspired by our collaboration with Birchbox!

Chris Ritter / BuzzFeed

1. Add an easy smoky eye to your arsenal.


PB and J Apparel has this great step-by-step for a simple smoked-eyeshadow look.

For another take on the deep crease, check out this tutorial on Maskcara.

2. Use white eyeliner to make your peepers appear larger.


This one from Sephora is a great go to. Just use it to line your inner bottom lid and watch those peepers pop.

3. Learn how to get perfect brows.

Well-groomed brows frame your eyes and can pull your entire look together. It’s easy to master the art following these simple steps from Keiko Lynn.

Need help picking the right product? Haute Chocolate’s got you covered.

4. Color corrector can banish under-eye bags and smooth your complexion.

To rid yourself of dark circles, why pile on layers of concealer when you could get a more natural wide-awake look with the right color corrector?

5. Use this concealer map to get a Beyoncé-like glow.

Cosmopolitan has the full tutorial.

6. Learn the difference between all those eye pencils and discover yours.

Gel, liquid, pencil, shadow? There are endless options to line your eyes. Our favorite and most foolproof method is Benefit’s “Yes They’re Real” pushup liner.

7. Speaking of eyes, learn to line and define.

The Beauty Department will show you how.

8. Contouring: not just for celebrities.

Contouring will change your life (or at least your photogenic-ness), and it can be done in five minutes or less.

9. Treat your under eye as a triangle rather than a half-moon.

No more raccoon eyes. It’s a game changer.

10. The secret to a great self tan is an applicator mitt.

Yup. Sexy, streak-free, AND your hands will stay clean.

11. A word to the wise, though…don’t self-tan your face.

That’s what bronzer is for. This tutorial shows you how to get the most out of yours.

12. Yes, eyelid primer is a thing.

It comes in both color-correcting and skin-tone versions, and it is the bomb. It smooths your lids, keeps your eye makeup in place all day, and eliminates that pesky crease that comes with oily lids.

13. Find your eye shape.

Different types of eyes require different type of eye makeup. Discover your eye shape and enter a whole new world of beauty. This amazing infographic will help you on your way.

14. Learn the foolproof cat eye!

Pro tip: Start at the corner of your eye and follow the lower lash line up with a flick. Full instructions HERE.

15. Primer? BB? CC? What does it all mean?

Moisturizing before makeup is a given; it smooths your skin for a better canvas. But there’s more. BB cream (aka Beauty Balms or Blemish Balms) will add a layer of sheer coverage and additional moisture to your skin, while primer will brighten your colors, extending the life of your makeup on your face and in the tube. (CC creams, if you’re wondering, are similar to BB creams, but include color-correcting pigments.)

16. Clean with primer, not makeup remover.


Don’t put your primer away yet! If you make a misstep during your beauty routine, primer is the best clean-up agent out there. It will smooth off the residue and prep the skin for fresh makeup. This Shiseido primer is great, and has an SPF of 21.

17. Layer for longevity.

The same concept that gets your lipstick to stay put can be applied elsewhere. Layer different types of blush for an all-day glow. Put a cream blush on over your foundation, set it with translucent powder, and then lightly dust powder blush over top.

18. Know your skin type.

Everything from powder to concealer to primer will work with your skin type if you let it. For example: Oily skin calls for a powder blush, while dry-skinned folks should opt for a cream blush. The more you know.

19. Knowing your skin tone will help you build a palette that works for you.

This video can help you determine your skin’s undertone.

20. Lip liner isn’t just for the ’90s hardcore set.

A subtle shade can add staying power to your lip color of choice or give a well-defined polished look to a neutral gloss with just a tiny bit of of blending.

21. Three steps to looking like you woke up like this.

The pink sponge, known as a beauty blender is a favorite of amateurs and pros alike. Learn how to get this flawless look HERE.

22. Love these beauty tips? BuzzFeed and Birchbox have teamed up to bring you this amazing Happy Holiday Hacks Box. Click here to learn more!

Flint’s massive water poisoning all started with an innocent-enough vote at city council.

The Flint City Council had no idea what was to come from its attempt to shave its budget in 2013.

Trying to peel some money away in the budget for other things, the city council in Flint, Michigan, set off a chain of events in March 2013 that had devastating effects.

The council voted 7-1 to pass a resolution to stop buying water from Detroit and join a new initiative piping in water directly from Lake Huron.

They weren’t the only ones who approved of this plan, which was supposed to save the city $19 million over eight years. The plan was fine by the state of Michigan, and the city’s emergency manager, Ed Kurtz, who signed off on it a month later.

Then Detroit notified Flint that it would cease selling water to them well before the new plan was set to take effect, which sent Flint scrambling to find a new source for water.

They eventually settled on the Flint River, despite prior reports saying it had the “most degraded water quality among the Saginaw River tributaries.”

The river water that would corrode lead-infused pipes, poisoning a city. Image by Andrew Jameson/Wikimedia Commons.

Flint Mayor Dayne Walling flipped the switch that officially shut off the Detroit water supply to his city on April 25, 2014. In a celebratory statement that would later seem downright haunting, he said:

Water is an absolute vital service that most everyone takes for granted. Its a historic moment for the city of Flint to return to its roots and use our own river as our drinking water supply.

However much money the switch was slated to save the city, it would end up costing Flint residents so much more.

A local mom sounded the alarm when she noticed lead levels spiking in her kids.

After a local mother, LeeAnne Walters, noticed her four children becoming very sick, she turned to her pediatrician. The doctor wrote a letter to the city of Flint warning that because one of the Walters’ children has a compromised immune system, he couldn’t safely use the city water. The city sent someone to test the water in the Walters’ home in November 2014.

The EPA recommends lead levels in water for children to stay under 15 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid brain, blood, and kidney damage. In the Walters’ home, lead levels were at 397 ppb. The official threshold for lead poisoning or “action level” occurs at 5 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dl). Walters’ son Gavin had a blood lead level of 6.5 mcg/dl.

Walters contacted the mayor, who did next to nothing to address her problem. She then contacted Miguel Del Toral from the EPA, who got a civil engineer named Marc Edwards, who studies corrosive lead and water, to start looking at the case.

Edwards’ team collected samples from hundreds of Flint water customers, and the results were astounding. When retested, the lead levels at the Walters residence had shot up to 13,000 ppb in nine months. Lead levels had similarly spiked in the other samples.

LaShanti Redmond (left), 10, and her sister Asharra Smith, 6, wait with their mother, Charlene Mitchell, of Flint, to get their blood tested for lead levels on Jan. 12, 2016. The Flint Community Schools, the Genesee County Health Department, and Molina Healthcare held a family fun night to get children ages 0-6 tested for lead levels in their blood. Image by Jake May/The Flint via AP.

But where was the lead coming from?

The city’s water infrastructure, like many cities’, is quite old. The pipes contain lead, which is fine if the water is not corrosive like the water from Detroit.

But when the city switched to the water from the Flint River, it failed to treat it to prevent corrosion, which set off a terrible chain of events.

Edwards was so horrified that he called for those responsible to be punished:

If a landlord with no training in public health doesnt inform a tenant of a lead hazard, they can and have been sent to jail. Thats how seriously society takes this issue. So what should be the fate of someone paid to do a specific job of protecting the public from this neurotoxin and they fail? If were going to throw a landlord in jail … how can you not hold these guys accountable?

Flint is now in a state of emergency, and Gov. Rick Snyder is in the hot seat about how much he knew and when.

/Wikimedia Commons.

On Jan. 5, 2016, Snyder declared the city in a state of emergency. That day, the U.S. Department of Justice announced it would be investigating why it took so long for officials to act.

The dangerous levels in Walters’ home were first discovered in November 2014, and subsequent concerns were dismissed until a pediatrician released a report outlining over 1,700 children’s blood lead levels in September 2015.

Finally, on Jan. 12, 2016, Snyder called in the National Guard to help distribute emergency water. In a concerning turn of events, it was just announced that the City Hall office where water documents are kept was broken into over the recent holiday break.

Asked relentlessly during a recent press conference about whether he was culpable for the water crisis, Snyder admitted, “I have a degree of responsibility.”

Those paying the price for all of this are the kids and some adults, too.

Lead poisoning has disastrous long-term effects. Learning disabilities and other cognitive impairments are almost certain among a significant portion of the children poisoned, as lead poisoning affects brain volume, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for decision-making and impulse control.

This is a collection of MRI scans from adults who were exposed to lead as children, showing the parts of the brain where the loss in mass occurred.

Image from the medical report “Decreased Brain Volume in Adults with Childhood Lead Exposure”/Wikimedia Commons.

Lead poisoning affects adults, too. Flint resident Michael Webber has gone blind in one eye since the water switched to the river source.

His doctor says high blood pressure resulted in a stroke in his eye and that normal function will never return. Lead poisoning results in high blood pressure, and Webber reports he always had normal blood pressure before the switch.

We can’t go back in time to save Flint, but we can protect our own cities with this new knowledge.

We can donate to those making sure the citizens of Flint have enough water to survive. We can call for charges against those who were negligent enough to cause this crisis. But even if the officials responsible get punished to the full extent of the law which is a real “if” the damage is done.

Local and state decision-makers have a ton of power and responsibility over citizens’ health, and they don’t always make the right judgment calls. We can’t just assume they always know what’s best.

The only protection we have in the face of these errors and mismanagement is in each other, as citizens by remaining engaged and in-the-know about our community, alerting each other when we discover health hazards, and keeping tabs on the decisions our leaders are making. The blame is fully with the decision-makers, but by the time citizens know how something went wrong, it’s often too late.

Maybe today is the day we’ll all look into where our city’s water is coming from and how it’s being treated.

We may prevent the next Flint.

A Fairly Exhaustive Ranking Of The Most Athletic ’90s TV Characters

Almost every sitcom and kids’ show eventually includes a big-sports-moment plot or a stereotypical athletic character. Sometimes it’s just for a single episode or a part of a recurring gag, while other times it’s the defining characteristic of a cast member. But which made-up athlete was the best made-up athlete? Here’s one set of rankings.

Honorable Mention:

Steve Urkel — Family Matters

Urkel was sneaky good at basketball and we’ll likely never know how good of an athlete he could have been had he been given a spot on the roster, instead of a position as team manager. The only thing we know for sure is that when everyone else went out with injuries (pictured above) Steve was clutch.

Grandma “Pookie” Gertrude — Hey Arnold!

Nickelodeon Animation Studios

A lot of people think Gerald was the most athletic character from Hey Arnold!, but Grandma is clearly better. If she can skate and shoot like this at her age, just imagine how great she must have been in her prime.

12. Brad Taylor — Home Improvement

Touchstone Television

As a senior in high school, Brad was offered a spot on the Birmingham Chubbs English soccer team. However, after showcasing his talent in front of a UCLA scout, he turned down the professional offer in favor of a college scholarship to play soccer for the Bruins. But, come on, that goal is nowhere near regulation size, so we can only assume that the scout was super high that day. Also, Brad is not that great at soccer.

11. Will Smith — Fresh Prince

On a shrunken basketball court, Will was unstoppable. In fact, he was so good that he once caught the tip-off and swished it from half-court — a move that has never been done before on any level ever. And for that, we give him mad props. Unfortunately, those athletic skills did not transfer over to other sports, like the times he tried billiards, golf, bowling or skiing, for example, and that’s why we can’t move him any lower on this list.

10. Al Bundy — Married with Children


Al Bundy scored four touchdowns in one game for Polk High in the Chicago City Championship, earning him All City honors back in ‘66. It was apparently such a great achievement that people still talk about it to this day and the school named the football field after him. Way to go, Al.

9. The Power Rangers — Mighty Morphin Power Rangers

Do you know how hard it is to do a backflip? Like, so hard. And every Power Ranger could do it. Except for maybe Billy. But he was always a little special. Anyway, the Power Rangers were martial arts experts, their athletic skills evident from the very beginning.

8. The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles — Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles

Everything athletic about the power rangers can be applied to the ninja turtles, except the TMNT had no weak link a la Billy the Blue Ranger. I mean, just look at how effortlessly Michelangelo leapfrogs Shredder. And I can’t even imagine how far Donatello backflipped outta there. LOL Shredder, you got played.

7. Mark Cooper — Hangin’ with Mr. Cooper

Mark Cooper made it all the way to the NBA. In his first game with the Golden State Warriors, he got manhandled by Charles Barkley and missed every single shot. But in his second game, his defense improved and he nailed the game-winning jumper over Sir Charles. (See the legitimately impressive basketball scene above.) Unfortunately, that wasn’t enough to convince the coach to keep him on the roster and he was cut after two games. Still, though, he made it to the highest level.

6. Chalky Studebaker — Doug

Chalky Studebaker is an all-around athlete who excels in everything that he does. He has tons of potential in sports, but his other extra-curricular activities take up free time that could be spent honing his athletic skills. The trumpet won’t help you win the Super Bowl, Chalky!

5. Vince LaSalle — Recess

Walt Disney Television

Vince is a playground legend. He pretty much dominates every sport imaginable and he can apparently balance several spinning balls at once. He’s also cool under pressure, rarely intimidated, and able to rally everyone around him. He’s a classic case of someone who was just born with good genes. Also, his look is, just, really cool.

4. Albert Clifford “A.C.” Slater — Saved by the Bell

A.C. Slater was allegedly “All-City in four sports,” but there’s no proof to back that up. He was the quarterback for the football team, an accomplished wrestler, a dancing machine, and even skilled in ballet, but last time I checked, dirty dancing at The Max isn’t something you can put on your letterman’s jacket. Sure, he went on to wrestle in college, and improved his overall muscle mass, but that’s not enough to make him the most athletic TV character around.

3. Donnie Stevens — Even Stevens

No one’s really sure about what kind of amazing talent “the great Donnie Stevens” had in high school, but we do know that he “still holds the state record for the 100-yard dash,” has a room full of trophies, and played numerous sports, as evidenced by the mural in the school gym. We are later told that Donnie continued to be successful in athletics as he moved on to college, but once again, no one’s really sure exactly what that means.

2. Oswald “Otto” Roinks — Rocket Power


Man, talk about an athlete with swag. Otto was not only the best athlete in his group of friends (which is saying a lot), but he backed up his big mouth with top performances in surfing, skateboarding, snowboarding, rollerblading, and street hockey. Plus, he was able to pull off the Super McVarial 900 (with a little help from a tennis ball). At 11 years old, he’s basically the closest thing TV had to Bo Jackson. But even he can’t touch the achievements of our winner…

1. Sam “Mayday” Malone — Cheers

Before running the bar known as Cheers, Sam “Mayday” Malone was a relief pitcher for the Boston Red Sox. Sadly, Sam developed an alcohol problem, ending his professional baseball career early, but when we’re first introduced to him (five years out of baseball) he’s still a hometown hero to all of his patrons, as well as a minor celebrity. Based on this, we can assume that Sam played for the Red Sox in the ’70s, likely making him a member of a World Series squad. And that, ladies and gentlemen, makes him the top athlete on this list.

Michael Phelps And Fiance Welcome Adorable Baby Boy Into The World

Well, it’s official: Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps is a dad.

According to his Instagram post, Phelps and his fiance, Nicole Johnson, welcomed their son, Boomer Robert Phelps, into the world on Thursday, May 5.

In his Instagram post, Phelps said Johnsonis doing well following the birth, writing,

Welcome Boomer Robert Phelps into the world!!! Born 5-5-2016 at 7:21 pm !!! Healthy and happy!!! Best feeling I have ever felt in my life!!! @nicole.m.johnson and Boomer both healthy!!!

The 30-year-old competitive swimmer competed in three different Olympic games, winning 18 Gold medals across various events, and is now welcoming his first child into the world. According to reports, Phelps and Johnson announced they were expectingin fall 2015.

At the moment, Phelps is reportedly training for the 2016 US Olympic Trials, which are two months from now. Phelps previously said he is ready to juggle being a dad and competing in one final Olympics.

All newborn babies are pretty cute, no doubt, but Boomer Robert Phelps is absolutely adorable.

Initially, reports suggested Phelps and Johnson were going to name their child after Phelps’ coach, Bob Bowman, which they may have done by choosing Robert as their son’s middle name.

Wherever the name Boomer comes from, it’s pretty damn cool.