Billiards and pool are games that require a decent knowledge of physics and geometry. This video might help you understand what actually happens when you strike a ball or when the ball strikes a rail, leading you to become a more precise – and accomplished – player. Good luck.
2. Slow Motion Bullets
Watching what occurs when a bullet strikes various objects is mesmerizing and unnerving.
3. Slow Motion Compilation
This compilation features a great balloon to the face moment. We often forget just how strange the liquid form of matter is.
4. Slow Motion Video with Phantom Flex Camera
This is a great highlight reel of what one of the premiere high FPS cameras on the market can do. At well over 2,000 FPS, you can easily make out the tiny water droplets that lag behind the larger one as a faucet is turned off. The sound editing on this compilation is as artfully composed as the images.
5. Dogs in Slow Motion
Dogs can be lazy, but when there’s food involved they’ll go to great lengths to ingest a treat.
6. Giant Water Balloon Bursts in Slow Motion
“The Slow Mo Guys” specialize in exploring the revealed details that only slow motion image capture can provide. This particular episode featured the duo expanding on the popular water balloon trope by attempting to break a massive six footer.
7. Slow Motion Free Running
The magic of free running and parkour is perfect for the slow motion camera. Watching the tricks being performed makes flipping and twisting seem so easy. Trust us it’s not.
8. Slow Motion Prank
Sometimes you have to use slow motion to highlight the brilliance of pranking your friends with an exploding couch cushion. Laughing at someone else’s pain is never a nice thing to do, but it’s awfully hard not to while watching this video.
9. Slow Motion Sneezing
Sneezing can produce some pretty whacky sounds. People generally look pretty stunned when you see them sneeze. In this video, people just look silly and gross. This video should be played in health clinics everywhere to remind people to cover the mouths when they sneeze. Yikes.
10. Slow Motion Percussion
Calling all drummers. Here’s a look at what happens to your drums and cymbals when you’re rocking out with your band. Don’t think about this too much while you’re playing though. It could throw off your rhythm.
Welcome to the Shirk Report where you will find the 25 funniest images, 10 most interesting articles, and 5 most viral videos from the previous week of sifting. Most images found on Reddit; articles typically originate from Twitter, RSS and email; videos come from a variety of sources. Any suggestions? Send a note to email@example.com!
*for email subscribers: If you visit the direct link to the shirk report in your web browser (by clicking the blue, underlined title), the videos will play properly and images will appear immediately under the text rather than opening in a new window!
In the world of cable news networks, HLN is the low talker, barely audible over screaming competitors Fox News, MSNBC, and even sibling network CNN. And while HLN sometimes produces decent ratings — usually tied to coverage of a salacious legal trial — two things it doesn’t generate for parent company Time Warner are respect and profits on par with those of its other cable networks.
But the unconventional new executive chosen to head the channel tells BuzzFeed — in his first interview since taking the job — that he plans to radically reimagine what used to be called CNN Headline News. Instead of battling for the traditional news viewer, Albie Hecht has chosen what may be an even more difficult fight: repositioning HLN around social media in a bid to attract young viewers who currently don’t watch news on TV at all.
“Younger consumers have a very different perception of what news and information is,” said Hecht. “For them, news is really made in the palm of their hands, in the iPhone prayer position. But they want every update in real time and nonstop and that’s the space that is not on TV. Our headlines are going to be ripped from social media.”
Hecht spoke over salad and sandwiches at one of the great temples of cable news, the Time Warner Center overlooking Manhattan’s Central Park, where the three TVs in his office are tuned constantly to HLN, CNN, and ESPN.
The traditional cable news audience hasn’t grown in years, leaving HLN and the flagship CNN fighting a bloody, often-losing battle each night with Fox News and MSNBC over the same 1 million swing viewers aged 25 to 54. While viewers tend to flock to CNN for breaking news coverage and Fox News and MSNBC attract audiences on opposite sides of the political aisle, nothing really defines HLN. It has found a bit of a niche with courtroom coverage of sensational trials such as Casey Anthony’s, but as Brad Adgate, vice president of research for Horizon Media, said: “How many trials of the century can you have?”
What Hecht aims to do is package and present news culled from the media young viewers are actually consuming. While its competitors will be mining newspapers and magazines and broadcast news for headlines, HLN plans to instead curate blogs, Facebook and Tumblr posts, YouTube videos, tweets, and memes to give the things that are being traded and shared on the web a home on television. (HLN will also, of course, be active in creating and pushing out new content to various social media platforms and on tablets and mobile devices.)
“There is no one place someplace where all of this news that you share on the web is available,” said Hecht, who was dressed corporate casual with a collared shirt and blazer, his silver hair matching the color of his wire-rimmed glasses. “By giving it a home, and saying clearly to the social media generation that this is for you, come here, when you watch TV, watch us, I think that’s going to be a very exciting development for them and for the media.”
That means talk shows on HLN, for instance, will now feature guests whose Tumblr just blew up or who created a viral video instead of the latest author shilling a book or actor promoting a movie. Instead of featuring the typical analysts or pundits, guests on commentary shows will be pulled from social media.
The strategy is firmly rooted in the belief that television is still the media’s most powerful star-making machine, and that the ultimate goal of all web stars is eventually to become TV stars. Put another way, HLN basically plans to program in part to a generation of American teens who, according to a recent study by youth research firm the Cassandra Report, not only want to be famous, but also believe that they will be one day. Indeed, one of the potential tag lines Hecht is toying with for the network is “We’re not the news, you are.” HLN is already defining itself in Google searches as “a national television network that focuses on the ‘must-see, must-share’ stories of the day.”
“It is a culture consumed by sharing and publishing about themselves and in their own little social circles they are famous, whether it is because a celebrity retweeted them or a prominent person followed them,” said Jason Hirschhorn, a former colleague of Hecht’s at Viacom and chief executive of media aggregator ReDef. “I expect a tremendous flow of those kinds of people making their way onto the network.”
Hecht’s makeover plan dovetails nicely with the mission of CNN’s new president, Jeff Zucker, to “broaden the definition of news” on CNN with programming that skews away from hard newscasts and toward more general interest nonfiction shows built around sports, food, or documentaries featuring recognizable personalities like Rachel Nichols, Anthony Bourdain, and Morgan Spurlock. (Zucker and Hecht share a common bond over their love of documentaries.) Or, to use another network as a reference point, Hecht is trying to modernize HLN in a way that mirrors how the History Channel both redefined itself and made its programming more contemporary under the “History made every day” rubric.
Hecht, 60, took an unconventional path to his new job, and he wasn’t exactly watching Nancy Grace when Zucker first called him about HLN last June. At the time, Hecht, who was still euphoric after his Oscar win for producing the documentary Innocente, was on his way to Thailand to begin production on a new film.
“Jeff wants to see you,” Zucker’s assistant told Hecht.
Zucker, the former CEO of NBC Universal, was calling to pick Hecht’s brain about what to do about HLN, the bastard step-news network he was now overseeing after being named president of CNN Worldwide in November 2012.
While the two didn’t have a personal relationship, NBC under Zucker had invested in Hecht’s independent digital production company, Worldwide Biggies, and Hecht at one point took part with other NBC executives in a brainstorming session about how the network could develop a kids and family business. In a prior life, as president of Entertainment for Viacom’s Nickelodeon, Nick at Nite, and TV Land, Hecht helped usher in the era of SpongeBob SquarePants and Dora the Explorer. On the other end of the demographic spectrum, he also created the testosterone-heavy Spike TV.
But that was the past. Hecht left old media and cutthroat corporate politics in 2007 to launch Worldwide Biggies, which in addition to producing digital entertainment programming for kids also featured a nonprofit documentary film unit focused on issues impacting children’s well-being around the world.
Though getting back into corporate life was further from Hecht’s mind than Thailand at the time, after two 90-minute meetings with Zucker he agreed to sign on as executive vice president of HLN.
“It was kind of like The Godfather, just when I thought I was out, they pulled me back in,” said Hecht, who has been on the job for about 120 days.
An early glimpse at HLN’s new direction. HLN / Via youtube.com
One of the challenges Hecht’s makeover of HLN confronts is creating a new presentation of the news that doesn’t come off as a 2014 version of Current TV, a hodgepodge of user-generated clips thrown on the air with no structure or strategy. (Current TV, founded by Al Gore, went through several different programming iterations without success and was eventually sold in 2013 and turned into what is now Al Jazeera America.)
Hecht said the network will have half-hour and hour-long shows, game shows, episodic series shows, and nonfiction programming along with clips shows and user-generated content. Hints as to what the new HLN will look like are already showing up in its programming. Hecht cites as examples using the viral video of a motorist being beaten on New York’s West Side Highway as a way to talk about violence on Dr. Drew on Call, a YouTube video of a Connecticut man giving a tour of his pot farm to discuss marijuana legalization on Nancy Grace’s show, and having a reporter conduct interviews with Seattle Seahawks players via FaceTime during the Super Bowl Media Day. Rather than doing a live show for New Year’s Eve, to cite another example, HLN aired an originally produced special called 50 States, 50 Stories that highlighted the stories behind the most shared videos of the year in each state based primarily on YouTube data.
And, on Monday, HLN plans to begin airing a new show called Right This Minute that will air two 30-minute episodes back-to-back Monday through Thursday evenings at 10 p.m. featuring four anchors who offer commentary on a selection of viral videos.
Overall, the new development slate will start small, with a maximum of four new shows this year, two to three of which will be HLN originals.
While HLN’s primetime lineup will continue to be anchored by Jane Velez-Mitchell, Nancy Grace, and Dr. Drew Pinsky, Hecht does plan changes to the on-air and production staff. Specifically, he is looking for people who have personality, a digital DNA, and are part of the social media generation. More bluntly, what he wants is to hire a bunch of twentysomethings adept at mining the most obscure reaches of the web for material as associate producers and pair them with seasoned journalist who can take their findings and package them editorially for TV. Think of a network workforce populated with teams of Brian Stelters and David Carrs.
“He has to recruit kids to work at the network. The age of the people you have working for you is reflected in the content,” Hirschhorn said. “He can’t just have a bunch of old people interpreting what they think kids want. He has to have people at the center of the scene who know where things are going on a daily basis.”
Super Bowl Media Day FaceTime Interviews. HLN / Via youtube.com
The good news for HLN is that 18- to 34-year-olds are watching more video than ever — they’re just more likely doing it on something other than a television screen, and more often than not what they’re watching is not a product of a traditional television network. As if that wasn’t bad enough, Hecht is well aware that his makeover is going to be met with instant revulsion by these viewers. He knows they will jump all over HLN’s programming if the tone isn’t right, and that its credibility and authority will be under constant scrutiny.
“News shows that target that demo have a certain sensibility,” said Adgate, citing The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report as examples. “They have a tongue-in-cheek approach to presenting news. It is done with a wink that shows they are in on the joke.” HLN, of course, needs to have appeal outside the Beltway and beyond the coasts. In Hecht’s vernacular, the network is striving to develop “a voice and point of view that is more Austin and Boston,” which in essence means more populist.
Winning over twentysomethings en mass is going to be a long-term proposition, which is why Hecht will initially define success by the number of what he describes as “millennial-minded” viewers he can convert.
Right now, the average age for HLN viewers is around 50 years old. Hecht’s near-term goal is to shave between 12 to 15 years off that, resulting in an average viewer profile that is around 35 to 38 years old and skews 55% female.
“That’s the generation that has a connection to both old and new media,” said Hecht, adding that they participate in, but are not of, the social media generation.
Aging down the audience will require the institutional muscles of both CNN and parent company Time Warner. Though HLN’s network peer group also includes FOX News and MSNBC, it is hard to overstate just how small it is compared to those networks. Consider, for instance, that while industry research firm SNL Kagan estimates FOX News will collect 99 cents per subscriber per month from pay-TV distributors, CNN 63 cents and MSNBC 22 cents, HLN gets nothing. The network is given away to pay-TV operators for free as part of a bundle with CNN and Time Warner’s other cable networks, just tagging along with its big brothers like an annoying little one nobody wants to play with. According to SNL Kagan, on a cash flow basis FOX News is expected to generate $1.1 billion this year, CNN $337 million, and MSNBC $216 million. HLN, however, a paltry $73 million.
On its own, based on those financials, HLN is at an extreme disadvantage to its competitors in terms of newsgathering resources. And it is actually another factor in the decision to orient the network around social media. The economics of digital media production are different than traditional television production — more crudely, web producers, mobile producers, and app producers work cheap.
Hecht says he plans to operate HLN with a startup mentality, borrowing from his resource-rich corporate siblings whenever possible. The more money and talent CNN devotes to social media newsgathering, the more HLN can share and cross-promote that content to its audience. Outside of CNN, Adgate said he would expect the new look HLN to get heavy promotion on TNT and, in particular, TBS, which features a median viewer age in the thirties, one of the youngest in television, thanks to a programming lineup heavy on comedies like Men at Work, Cougar Town, and Conan.
Still, rebranding a network takes time and rarely goes smoothly.
“Smooth transitions are like science fiction, they don’t exist,” Hirschhorn said. “But you have to go in there, rip the Band-Aid off and weather the storm of criticism from the new viewers you are targeting and the old ones you are confusing.”
Hecht can take solace in knowing that he’s seen a network aimed at 20-year-olds overcome the heavy skepticism it was met with before. In 1981, Hecht was in his late twenties and working as an independent producer when MTV launched. Critics said it was going to fail because, even back then, they claimed twentysomething kids didn’t watch TV.
“We didn’t watch because it wasn’t focused on us,” Hecht said. “Once it was, we watched.”
Nearly 8 million people have watched a single YouTube video of airplanes taking off and landing. Welcome to the world of planespotters — or “jetrosexuals,” or “cloud bunnies” — air travel’s biggest fans.
“We couldn’t give a fuck about Obama,” Luke Amundsen says as he stares through a car windshield toward a taxiing Qantas jet. “We just want to take photos of his airplane.”
It’s a horribly windy Friday morning in mid-July at Brisbane Airport, situated 10 miles northeast from the third biggest city in Australia. Amundsen and Simon Coates are sitting in the cabin of a silver Holden Commodore while commercial aircraft alternately take off and touch down. “If there was a private jet due in, we’d come out here just for that,” says Coates. “We don’t care who’s on it — we just want the jet.”
He switches on a dashboard radio unit, which picks up staccato blasts of aviation jargon from the nearby control tower. “…Qantas 950 two-five-zero degrees, three-zero knots — cleared to land,” says a calm male voice. Amundsen exhales, impressed. “Three-zero knots!” he says. “That’s a decent wind.”
Amundsen is a tall 28-year-old, with facial stubble and short, spiked brown hair. He’s the more enthusiastic of the pair. Coates, also 28, plays it much cooler: His eyes are hidden behind sunglasses, and his responses are more measured. He maintains the Brisbane Airport Movementsblog, while Amundsen helps run a Facebook page, Brisbane Aircraft Spotting, which has around 6,000 fans. Together, the two have also invested tens of thousands of dollars and a year of their lives in the development of a new website, Global Aircraft Images, which seeks to challenge established spotter-friendly communities such as Airliners.net and Planespotters.net.
While we sit facing the tarmac — the second busiest single airport runway in the world, after London’s Gatwick — a news van glides past. “They must be out here for the Malaysian thing,” says Coates, before turning to me. “Did you hear about the Malaysian that went down?” It’s July 18, 2014, the day that news breaks of MH17’s wreckage being scattered across the Ukrainian countryside. Amundsen reveals that he has flown on that destroyed Malaysia Airlines plane, while Coates has flown on MH370, the one that went missing in March. They know this because they both keep records of every flight they’ve ever taken.
“We’re pretty serious about it,” Amundsen continues. “At home, Simon and I have got ADS-B receivers; with those, on our computer screens at home, we can virtually see exactly what the air traffic controllers can see. If something unusual pops up on our radar screen, that’ll usually give us half an hour to get out here and catch it.” (Neither of them can recall what ADS-B stands for, so Coates googles it: Automatic Dependent Surveillance — Broadcast.) A plane-tracking website named FlightRadar24 feeds off these receivers. Coates opens the app on his phone, which shows a bunch of tiny yellow icons overlaid on a map. “You can see all the planes buzzing around,” he says.
“This app runs off people’s home feeds,” Admundsen explains.
We meet at what’s known as “The Loop” — one end of Acacia Street, which borders Brisbane Airport and offers the best runway-side sight lines for spotters, including a raised concrete viewing platform. At age 15, Amundsen began learning to fly at flight school; a year later, he was flying a skydiving plane for fun and profit, and by 19 he had obtained his commercial pilot license. He has clocked over 3,000 hours in the cockpits of airplanes and helicopters. Coates is employed by the Qantas Group too, as a ground handling agent here at Brisbane Airport — a job that, he says with a smile, involves “passenger marshaling, boarding flights, standing out on the apron, getting high on aviation fuel every day.” He jokes that he has logged over 800 “backseat hours” on commercial flights.
Through the windshield, we watch a red-tailed Boeing 747 take off. “See, there we go, he’s off to Singapore,” says Amundsen, pointing. “He’s up nice and early.”
“Very early variation,” says Coates, admiring the steep ascent.
“That’s, like, a QF8 rotation. He’s got awesome headwind. The wind’s coming from the south, and going over the wing.”
They know the Qantas jet is heading to Singapore because it ascended so sharply. “There’s two [Qantas] 747s,” says Amundsen. “One goes to L.A., one goes to Singapore. The L.A. one goes out a hell of a lot heavier; it would have over 100 tons of fuel on board. That would only have about 60,” he says, pointing again at the now-distant aircraft, growing smaller by the second.
Amundsen knows these routes and schedules particularly well, as he lives nearby. “If I could live closer, I would,” he says. “I can be lying in bed at midnight and hear the Emirates 777 come over, and know exactly what it is, straightaway. I don’t even have to look up.”
Amundsen’s comment about the presidential plane arises as the pair discuss the upcoming G20 summit in November. These two will be among the crowd attempting to gather somewhere near this airport, cameras in hand, searching the skies for Air Force One in the hope of capturing a once-in-a-lifetime event: the president of the United States of America landing at their home airport. An intense Australian Federal Police presence surrounding the miles of wire fences day and night for the duration of the summit mean that shooting Air Force One is an unlikely event indeed. But still, the possibility is there.
And possibility is what drives planespotters — otherwise known as “jetrosexuals,” “aerosexuals,” and “cloud bunnies” — a niche group of obsessives whose intense interest in flight paths, travel schedules, and colorful jet livery occasionally overlaps with the concerns of the general population.
When Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370 vanished on March 8, 2014, planespotting had its best chance at making a mainstream impact. While millions combed satellite images online to look for signs of wreckage, a 32-year old designer and filmmaker based in Jersey City, New Jersey, named Michael Raisch had a different approach: to collaborate with global planespotters and create a visual tribute to the aircraft. Raisch searched MH370’s tail number — 9M-MRO — and emailed around 80 spotters who had photographed the plane. Raisch says, “I had the simple thought, ‘You captured this little thing that’s gone, it’s not coming back, no one can take this picture again — how do you feel?’”
Ultimately, 22 spotters from around the world replied and offered Raisch shots they had taken from 2004 to February 2014. His tribute functioned as a kind of eulogy for the physical aircraft, and it struck a chord, attracting 120,000 visitors in the month after its publication on March 30. “The planespotters gave us a human connection to this missing plane, and I think that’s why it went viral,” Raisch says.
To seasoned sky spies like Amundsen and Coates, such headlines are viewed as sideline attractions rather than the main event. Rather than chasing the loudest sirens and smoldering wreckage, theirs is a process of passion — they show up day after day, week after week, and cast their eyes toward the runway. But since September 2001, any pastime involving the close scrutiny of commercial aircraft cannot be seen as wholly innocent.
In front of our parked car are a father and son, lying in the back of their four-wheel drive to escape the wind, doing exactly the same thing as we are. Later, Amundsen says, “I just broke up with my missus, mate. That’s a good thing, you know? I reckon spotting was more important than her!”
While modern planespotting may appear to some as a rather strange and tedious way to spend free time, the hobby has its roots in the serious business of wartime watchfulness. During World War II, British and American governments distributed cards to citizens that included illustrations showing the differences between Allied and Axis aircraft, so that those with their eyes to the sky could determine whether to wave patriotically or seek cover from incoming ordnance.
Allied airaft collector cards from WWII ATOMIC Hot Links / Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) / Via Flickr: 7552532@N07
Nowadays, a search for planespotting on YouTube returns over a million results, and the most popular video has been viewed over 7.5 million times. It was uploaded in August 2013 by an account named TheGreatFlyer, run by Demetris Gregoriou, who lives in Nicosia, the capital of the European island nation of Cyprus. He is 17 years old.
Titled “Low Landings and Jetblasts – A Plane Spotting Movie,” the four-minute clip was filmed on the small Greek island of Skiathos, where enormous jets land on a beach-approach runway that spans the entire width of part of the tiny tourist paradise and allows spotters to get unusually up close and personal. Gregoriou makes a pilgrimage there every year. “People cannot believe I spend eight days [on] such a beautiful island, all of them by the end of the runway,” he says. The young filmmaker describes Skiathos as “the second St. Maarten,” in reference to another famously low-altitude runway at Princess Juliana International Airport, on the Caribbean island, which acts as a magnet for the global planespotting community and curious tourists alike.
Near the beginning of the video, a sign warns DANGER: PLEASE KEEP AWAY FROM AIRCRAFT BLAST, yet Gregoriou captures on film plenty of sandal-wearing enthusiasts attempting to hold onto a steel fence while they’re buffeted by high-speed winds, sand, and debris. At one point, a man attempts to let go, only to collapse on his knees in the middle of the road as the wind roars through his hair. At another, a slow-motion replay of an Air Italy 737 seems to show its wheels missing the fence by inches. “Many consider planespotting a rather boring sport,” Gregoriou says. “They always get impressed after watching my videos.”
One of the most popular videos uploaded by a user named Dantorp Aviation is a 31-minute “wingview” video of a British Airways 747-400 taking off from New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport. The footage is taken from a single camera, filming the aircraft pushing off from the aerobridge and taxiing to the runway, while passengers and crew chatter in the background. The video essentially shows modern air travel in all its minutiae, including the standard in-flight warnings that smoking is not permitted, and that passengers are required to switch off their phones.
“When I talk to the average person about my YouTube channel, they’re like, ‘What, people actually watch that?’” says Dantorp, the alias of 17-year-old Daniel G., who is based in Gothenburg, Sweden. (He requested that his surname not be used.) Since being uploaded in September 2013, that video has received over 630,000 views, and, all told, Dantorp’s 290-odd aviation videos have been viewed nearly 10 million times. But…why? “I wish I knew,” he says with a laugh. “Apart from the airport, YouTube is the closest to aviation you can get.”
Brian Futterman compares the adrenaline rush of planespotting to what a hunter might feel while stalking a wild animal, or what a groupie might experience when chasing their favorite band. “It’s hard to explain to those who haven’t felt it,” explains the 26-year-old commercial pilot based in Charlottesville, Virginia, who grew up in Queens, New York, and whose ideal weekends as a teenager involved spotting takeoffs and arrivals at LaGuardia or JFK. “It took me a while to realize that I had a different adolescence — less clubbing and underage drinking and trying to be mischievous, [and more] waking up at 5 a.m. and taking $2,500 in camera gear with a 35-year-old friend to watch the new Thai Airways A340-500 arrival at JFK.”
Yet despite the hobby’s innocence, Futterman is aware that those who choose to spend their time along airport fences naturally attract wariness. “The plight of the community for the past 13 years has been to insist our value and our benign nature to the authorities and the public,” he says. “If there’s a team of 20 guys at an airport pointing these big lenses, sometimes people think they’re RPGs [rocket-propelled grenade launchers]. They’d make up some laws about trespassing, tell us it’s illegal to take pictures of airlines.”
He recalled one particular incident as a teenager when, a few hours after his dad dropped him and a friend off for spotting, an airport security officer shooed them into his office, demanding they be picked up.
“PLANESPOTTING MUST BE ONE OF THE MOST ECCENTRIC HOBBIES KNOWN TO MANKIND, BUT IT IS NOT AN INDICATION OF ILL WILL OR A THREAT,” FUMED ONE BRITISH FOREIGN MINISTER.
“Looking through the pictures on my camera, including one sweet shot of a Delta 767-400 — like, the biggest airplane to come into the airport — I was told to delete everything and advised to ‘get a real hobby, like baseball cards or something,’” Futterman remembers. “[My] friend cried. I was pissed. Cocksuckers.”
This kind of intense suspicion isn’t unique to the United States. In 2001, 12 British and two Dutch planespotters visiting a military base in Greece were imprisoned by Greek officials for five weeks on charges of espionage, causing a protracted and tense diplomatic dispute in the European Union. “Planespotting must be one of the most eccentric hobbies known to mankind, but it is not an indication of ill will or a threat,” fumed one British foreign minister.
Even as a licensed pilot, Futterman says there have been occasions when he has been admonished by airport security for taking pictures of planes during his downtime. “It’s kind of like not being allowed in a restaurant to look at the menu unless you’re definitely going to eat there,” he says. “And you’re the chef.”
Phil Derner, an air traffic dispatcher for a major airline, knows this well, having been detained by police twice in his life while photographing planes at airports. “Around here in New York, it’s 50-50. If someone walks past and looks at you, smile and give a wave, and a ‘Hey, how are you?’ They’ll usually think, OK, that’s a weird person.”
Like Futterman, Derner grew up in Queens, across from LaGuardia, and his upbringing was filled with views of smoky 1980s jetliners from his third-floor window. Now 33, he has owned and operated NYCAviation.com, one of the world’s most popular aviation enthusiast hubs, for over a decade. By coincidence, when we speak, it’s Aug. 19, the 75th National Aviation Day — a significant event on the annual calendar of a plane-centric website like NYCAviation. “It’s not a holiday,” says Derner with a smile, “but it’s where I feel we can actively celebrate aviation, and raise a glass and toast to it.”
He regularly spends 16 hours a day working on the website, which has a staff of 11. On the wall behind his desk are two large global navigation charts, which show international airways, as well as a photo of his partner in NYCAviation, Matt Molnar, who died of a cardiac arrest in January 2013. Derner has also posted handwritten index cards of inspirational quotes, including one from JetBlue CEO Dave Barger (“What got us here won’t get us there”).
“The more that I learn about everything that goes on behind the scenes,” he says, “the stronger the appreciation that I have for the technology that allows flight, the people who spend their time to make aviation safe and who celebrate the fact the human species can defy gravity like that. It’s the craziest way to transport yourself, yet it’s the safest.”
NYCAviation covers what Derner dubs “aviation enthusiasm” in its broadest sense, in the name of demystifying air travel to those who primarily think of it as stressful, or dangerous, or annoying; planespotters are its most enthusiastic subset. And that enthusiasm manifests itself as a bunch of people standing along airport perimeters, waiting.
“In a lot of ways, it’s like fishing,” Derner says. “A lot of it is about the people in the fishing boat with you, and shooting a certain plane is like catching a big fish.”
Catches don’t come much bigger than the one landed by 54-year-old Spaniard Josep Manchado one day in late January 2000 while spotting at his local airport, Palma de Mallorca. Manchado snapped a few frames of a Boeing 737 jet that was unattended. Upon returning home, he uploaded his best image to Airliners.net, and forgot about it. Six months later, Manchado received an email from a reporter at a German television station, ZDF, asking to corroborate a story described by a source, who alleged that he was kidnapped on this particular aircraft. “They wanted to count the steps on the stairs to the plane,” says Manchado, “because the Arab man counted the steps into the plane while he was wearing a blindfold.”
This “Arab man” — actually a German citizen named Khaled el-Masri — alleged that the plane took him from Skopje, Macedonia, through Palma, Spain’s third largest airport, to a CIA black site in Afghanistan, where he was then interrogated, beaten, strip-searched, sodomized, and tortured by the United States government as part of what was later known as its extraordinary rendition program. The program began in the mid-1990s but intensified following the 9/11 attacks. Josep Manchado’s photograph of the aircraft was a crucial piece of the puzzle that allowed investigative journalists to corroborate details of el-Masri’s story, and thus provided the first concrete proof of this practice.
“On one side, I was very proud to help discover all these military flights of the CIA, because I think it’s a terrible action,” says Manchado. In the years between publishing that seemingly innocuous photograph and the rendition program coming to light, the Spaniard received plenty of media requests for his fortuitous photograph, as well as some shady-sounding questions from people in the United States asking for his identification and Social Security number, which Manchado refused to provide.
Some of his friends in the tight-knit spotting community surrounding Palma de Mallorca airport warned Manchado that he might be disappeared by the CIA for his actions. He admits having some anxiety when he next visited the United States. “I was worried when they put my name in the computers, but I got in no problem,” he says. However, Spanish authorities subsequently revoked runway access to planespotters.
In April, a New York Times journalist, Thomas Erdbrink, happened to look out the window at Mehrabad Airport in Tehran and notice a tiny American flag on the tail of a corporate jet. Despite President Obama’s warnings that the central Middle Eastern hub was not open for business, here was evidence to the contrary, it seemed: The Bombardier jetliner powered by two General Electric engines was owned by the Bank of Utah, which is listed as a trustee for 1,169 aircraft, according to the Federal Aviation Administration’s database.
Although a follow-up report solved this mystery by showing that the plane had been leased by a Ghanaian mining company owned by a brother of the West African country’s president, Erdbrink’s canny smartphone snap was a fine example of the unwritten credo of being in the right place at the right time, to which many amateur spotters adhere.
While Manchado’s and Erdbrink’s discoveries were accidental, some planespotters intentionally seek out this kind of intrigue. “Eugene,” who has asked not to be identified, is in his late fifties, and works as an engineer in the Bay Area. He has no interest in the comparatively pedestrian, civilian efforts of men like Luke Amundsen, Simon Coates, and Josep Manchado. “There are people that go to the airport and photograph everything,” he tells me via email. “Imagine sitting by the side of the road and photographing cars: Chevy, Ford, Chevy, Toyota.”
Eugene contrasts this against his preferred type of spotting, which involves photographing military air traffic: For example, from Coyote Summit, a favorite spot of his in Nevada. A page on his website features remarkable photos of Air Force hardware captured from the summit in midair, including a B1-B Lancer in steep ascent. “First of all, there’s no landing gear showing,” he writes. “This is the difference between photographing animals in the zoo — the airport — versus in the wild. When the B1-B was flying by, I was the only person on the hill. But go to the fence at Nellis [Air Force Base, south Nevada], and there are probably two dozen photographers all taking the same shots.”
I ask what constitutes “big game.” “They have to be test aircraft,” he replies. “I’m more into black projects, and Groom Lake stuff,” referring to the home of Area 51, the highly secretive military base in Nevada.
Nuisance plays some part in Eugene’s motivations, as despite the fact that the U.S. military would probably prefer that its prototype aircraft were kept hidden, he maintains that photography “is not a crime. Hence if they are annoyed or not is irrelevant.”
On a Saturday morning at Brisbane Airport’s spotting base, I meet with three more aircraft enthusiasts: Lance Broad, 31, who manages a supermarket, and his partner Sarah Duggan, 25, as well as Beau Chenery, a 26-year-old freelance IT contractor. Broad and Chenery are co-administrators of the YBBN Spotters Group on Facebook, which has nearly 4,500 fans. Broad, who has a shaved head, dark eyes, and a blue Boeing jumper, used to be into surf photography. “A friend brought me to The Loop five years ago, and I was hooked,” he says. “Now all I shoot is aviation. This is harder; it’s all got to be preplanned.”
As we talk near the fence, a small group of spotters — all men — are taking photos from the concrete viewing platform. A couple of them have brought stepladders, so that the wire fence isn’t in their shots. A Qantas Boeing 767 with colorful cartoon livery based on the Disney film Planes taxis past for takeoff. Duggan waves at the pilot, who returns her gesture. Broad smiles and asks how she feels; beaming, she replies, “I feel special!”
I ask whether she was interested in planes before she met Lance. “No,” she replies, laughing. During the hour that we spend at The Loop on this bright morning, I spot four women, including Sarah. All of them are here with their partners.
“Brisbane Airport Corporation sees us as stakeholders; we know what’s right and wrong,” says Chenery, arms crossed and wearing sunglasses to fend off the glare. “The Australian Federal Police views us as a legitimate community group.”
“We embrace them,” echoes Leonie Vandeven, media and marketing communications manager at Brisbane Airport Corporation. “There’s no harm in watching planes. They’re extra eyes, they’re considerate, and they’re essentially advocates for the airport. They’re part of the family.”
Last year, BAC threw a “plane party” for the local spotters here at The Loop, which was attended by nearly 100 people. BAC provided free tacos and invited a few guest speakers, including the Australian Federal Police. Vandeven, 41, gives a cheeky smile. “Spotters are committed, man. They’re out there with their flasks of soup and tea.”
The symbiotic relationship that Brisbane Airport has with its small group of local spotters is atypical, but not an anomaly. “Miami International even set up several holes in the fence by the runway specifically to fit lenses,” says Futterman. “That’s a planespotter’s utopia, where hassle is nil and access is unfettered.”
Since 2011, Brisbane Airport has existed as a suburb in its own right. As airside operations manager, it’s Peter Dunlop’s responsibility to oversee everything that goes on inside the fence — 16 miles of bitumen roads that his staff patrols 24/7. The airport averages 600 plane “movements” per day, of aircraft either arriving at or departing from its domestic and international terminals, which together service 26 airlines flying to 67 destinations.
“We have a good relationship with our spotters,” Dunlop says, while steering a white utility vehicle onto one of the airport’s many taxiways. “It’s not like we’re inundated with requests every day; there’s a community of around a hundred people, and you might only ever see 30 or 40 of them at one time. We try and help them where we can.” They take some of the local spotters on occasional airside tours — like the one I’m on — to offer them unique photography opportunities, to thank them for their unceasing devotion. In exchange for access, the airport reserves the right to use any particularly striking photos in its own marketing materials. It’s a quid pro quo that many of the spotters seem to view as a great honor. After all, it’s better to be inside the fence than out.
Dunlop steers the vehicle toward the maintenance hangars, which are hidden away from public view. He edges us toward a hangar that’s usually closed. Through a crack in the door, we see a private helicopter and jet in repose. His curiosity sated, we return to the taxiways. “Keep an eye out for FOD,” he says. “That’s ‘foreign object debris.’ We don’t want anything that can be sucked into an engine.” He smiles, then something catches his eye. He brings the vehicle to an abrupt stop, pulls on the hand brake, and steps outside, returning with a grin on his face and a small metal screw. “That could cost somebody hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of damage to an engine,” he says. “They’re not always that easy to see.”
We pass the waterfront overlooking Moreton Bay and motor up Concorde Road, heading back toward the terminals. During my time with Lance Broad and Beau Chenery, the pair told me that one of their favorite spotting locations is right beside the airport’s sewage treatment plant, which smells exactly as you’d imagine. If grown humans are willing to voluntarily subject themselves to those conditions purely in the hope of capturing unique, original photographs of airplanes, Brisbane Airport Corporation doesn’t really have to do anything at all to keep them happy.
On our winding route back to his office, Dunlop and I pass The Loop. It’s a stunningly clear Friday morning, and gathered on the concrete viewing platform on the other side of the fence are six young men with stepladders and camera lenses. Dunlop and I give them a wave as we drive past, and they wave back enthusiastically. By the time we round the corner and I look back over my shoulder, though, their eyes and lenses are already fixed on the next plane taxiing for takeoff.
In the months since starting work on this story, I flew 12 times between the Australian cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra, Hobart, and my home base of Brisbane. One of these flights was the single most hair-raising airborne experience of my life: It was a chilly evening at Hobart International Airport when I boarded a mostly full Boeing 717, one of the smallest Qantas planes in the airline’s commercial fleet. We taxied out to the airstrip and I watched another plane, headlights blaring, effortlessly touch down before us. To my right, the engine began buzzing like an insistent hornet. We left earth and immediately encountered turbulence, thanks to a strong headwind. As the plane ducked and bounced between invisible pockets of resistance, I resisted the urge to grip my armrests and instead sat grinning to myself. In those tense minutes, before our aircraft broke through the cloud cover into clean air and bathed in the last moments of a setting sun, I finally got it. Mundane or ubiquitous as it can seem, every flight is a remarkable, noteworthy achievement; every flight is worthy of record. And I wondered who was standing at the airport perimeter below, watching.
Filter-feeding fish accomplish a feat that human technologies cannot: species including goldfish, menhaden and basking sharks filter tiny algal cells or shrimp-like prey from huge volumes of water without clogging their oral filters.
Since fish have been filtering particles for more than 150 million years longer than human beings, we suspected fish may have evolved filter designs that use unknown processes to remain unclogged. So we decided to investigate.
Our research, recently published in Nature Communications, combines approaches from biomechanics, medicine and ecology to explore how these fish retain and transport prey inside their mouths. Our goal is to provide ideas and data that could improve aquaculture, conservation and industrial filtration.
Crossflow filtration works for fish and industry
Until 15 years ago, we thought that most filter-feeding fish used oral structures called gill rakers in the same way that we use coffee filters or spaghetti strainers. These so-called dead-end sieves force water to pass straight through the pores of the mesh. But dead-end sieves always clog as particles accumulate over time to cover the filter surface.
The water flows right through a colander and leaves the spaghetti trapped on the mesh, but a fish needs to move the food from the gill raker filter to the back of its mouth for swallowing. Dead-end sieves would cause problems for fish, since their gill rakers would clog and fish dont have a tongue to move food particles off the gill rakers. So we knew they must be using some other filtering technique.
By putting a biomedical endoscope inside the mouths of feeding fish, colleagues and I discovered in 2001 that several common fish species use crossflow filtration instead of trapping particles directly on a dead-end sieve.
During crossflow filtration, small secondary streams of fluid pass through each filter pore perpendicular to the filter surface, like in dead-end filtration. But the main stream of fluid the crossflow is directed to travel across (parallel to) the filter surface, lifting particles off the filter and preventing the pores from clogging with particles.
A tilapia illustrating the current model of crossflow filtration, from Sanderson et al., doi: 10.1038/ncomms11092. The mainstream flow (MF) enters from the right and passes across the gill rakers (GR) that are attached to the branchial arches (BA). The mainstream flow carries concentrated particles to the back of the mouth for swallowing. The smaller secondary flows (the filtrate, Fi) pass through the pores of the gill raker filter. Virginia Greene, virginiagreeneillustration.com, CC BY-NC-ND
Through the endoscope, we could see that the main flow of water heading toward the back of the mouth was transporting concentrated particles parallel to the gill raker filter. Less forceful streams of particle-free water exited between the gill rakers. All of these fluid dynamics are caused by the interaction of the water with the physical structures in the fishs mouth.
We hadnt expected to see crossflow filtration in fish, though this mechanism had been independently developed by industry a few decades earlier. Crossflow filtration avoids clogging and is often used to filter wastewater, pharmaceuticals, dairy foods and beverages such as beer and fruit juices.
Unfortunately, even industrial crossflow filters still clog eventually. Over time, as water exits through the filter pores, it deposits some particles on the filter. The filters must then be backflushed or cleaned with chemicals, causing a major operating expense.
So we turned again to fish, to see whether millions of years of evolution might have come up with unique crossflow filter designs.
Biomimetic designs from fish mouths
We started our study by examining basic structures inside fish mouths, familiar to fishermen and aquarium hobbyists. Fish gill rakers the feeding filters are attached to the branchial arches. These arches are bone or cartilage ribs inside the mouth that also support the bright red gills for gas exchange. The arches are typically positioned one after another from the front of the mouth back toward the esophagus, where food is swallowed. Scientists hadnt previously considered the effects these branchial arches could have on patterns of water flow.
For our latest research, we made our own filters by using computer-aided design (CAD) software and 3D printing to create cone-shaped plastic models of fish mouths. We covered the branchial arch ribs with a fine nylon mesh.
We based our physical models on paddlefish and basking sharks because their branchial arches form a series of tall ribs that are separated by deep grooves. In our models, each rib served as a backward-facing step that interacted with the crossflow of water traveling over the step.
Almost anywhere that water flows over a backward-facing step, a vortex is created automatically. For this reason, the closely-spaced tall ribs (d-type ribs) in these fish mouths arent often used by engineers because of the disruptive vortices that form continuously in the grooves between the ribs.
We designed many models with different versions of these backward-facing steps to test the effects of varying characteristics like height and distance between the steps. Interestingly, designs for some microfluidics devices that are used in labs for cell sorting have similar rib-like structures.
Both paddlefish and basking sharks are ram filter feeders that swim forward with a completely open mouth to capture prey. To simulate this kind of feeding, my three undergraduate student coauthors, Erin Roberts, Jillian Lineburg and Hannah Brooks, and I conducted experiments in a flow tank. We submerged our stationary models in a constant stream of water inside the tank. The models fed on particles as we adjusted the speed of the water in the flow tank and added particles of different sizes, shapes and densities to the water.
A paddlefish illustrating the new vortical cross-step filtration model, from Sanderson et al., doi: 10.1038/ncomms11092. The mainstream flow (MF) enters from the right and interacts with the series of backward-facing steps that are formed by the branchial arches (BA), causing vortical flow (Vo). The vortex interacts with the gill rakers (GR) to concentrate particles for transport towards the back of the mouth to be swallowed. Virginia Greene, virginiagreeneillustration.com, CC BY-NC-ND
Unique vortical cross-step filtration in fish
Like the spinning of a mini-tornado, water passed over the backward-facing steps inside our models and formed a distinct vortex in the groove between each pair of ribs. We designed accessory structures to control the movement of the vortices by creating regions of the model where the flow couldnt escape easily. High shear rates around the vortices scoured particles off the mesh, preventing clogging.
Green dye helps visualize the vortices generated in model paddlefish and basking shark mouths. S. Laurie Sanderson, CC BY-ND
We manipulated the vortices to carry particles to the floor of the models, showing that fish could be using this highly adaptable filtration system like a hydrodynamic tongue to move particles inside their mouths.
We manipulated the vortices in our models to transport concentrated particles along the vortex axis, downstream from each backward-facing step. The vortices lifted particles from the mesh and carried them toward the floor of the model.
Small preserved paddlefish from an aquaculture company, placed in the flow tank in filter-feeding position, also formed vortices that concentrated particles inside the mouth. This suggests that weve correctly identified and modeled structures that are important for generating vortices inside real fish mouths.
This new filtration method, which we term vortical cross-step filtration, is effective even when the mesh is damaged or missing from a large portion of the models. Just like fish can continue to feed even when their gill rakers are still growing or are torn, our models can capture particles even when there are large holes in the mesh.
Although wed identified vortices as a potential mechanism for fish filtration as early as 2001, data on particle capture by vortical flow in fish mouths havent been published previously.
Rhodamine dye traces the path of a vortex that forms downstream from a backward-facing step. The step mimics a branchial arch inside a fishs mouth.
The future of cross-step filtration
Our biomimetic models of paddlefish and basking shark mouths use novel arrangements of engineering structures that harness vortical flow to retain and transport tiny food particles. Cross-step filtration could also apply to filter-feeding ducks, baleen whales and the gill rakers of filter-feeding fish such as manta rays.
Understanding these vortices in fish opens new research directions for engineering improved filters with less clogging, as well as the rapid separation of cells for biomedical tests.
Scientology leader David Miscavige has been trumpeting his church’s “milestone year,” but the mysterious religion is alienating scores of its most faithful followers with what they call a real estate scam. With anger mounting and defectors fleeing, this may be more than a fleeting crisis; it may be a symptom of an institution in decline.
Four Canadian film students were assigned a project: Create a YouTube hoax video that gets 100,000 views. They got nearly 42 million instead. Here’s the definitive behind-the-meme look at how — and why — their homework snowballed into one of the most popular and rapidly spread videos ever.
The monthlong Python Challenge in the Everglades is part controversial preservationist initiative, part sensationalistic media stunt, and all slinking through swamps trying to kill giant deadly reptiles.
The most hellish thing about hyperacusis is that it renders the slightest mundane sound so unbearably loud that suicide seems like the only relief. The second most is convincing people that this condition is real.
On March 24, 1998, two children shot up a middle school near Jonesboro, Arkansas, killing five, wounding ten, and setting the benchmark for a horrifying trend in America. This is the story of how the close-knit rural community healed — and didn’t — and what places like Newtown can learn from its example.
The once and future Van Halen frontman has parlayed the sex and drugs and rock ‘n’ roll of his youth into a wild middle age, and he wants to teach us all about it. Drinking, smoking, and swinging swords on a Saturday night at home with the last true rock star.
Last September, a car chase through Arizona turned from afternoon diversion to tragedy to referendum on media ethics, but lost in the noise was any sense of who was on the run or why. This is the story behind the spectacle.
Army medic Nicholas Walker returned home from Iraq after 250 combat missions, traumatized and broken. His friends and family couldn’t help him. Therapy couldn’t help him. Heroin couldn’t help him. Pulling bank heists helped him.
Thanks to a small but devoted core of true believers and an infusion of Silicon Valley research funds, the once-revered, much-reviled science of cryopreservation may itself be coming back from the dead. Welcome to Alcor, where death is merely a temporary setback.
For the fourth year in a row, the Nathan’s 4th of July hot dog-eating contest was without its original superstar thanks to an ongoing, bilious contract dispute. It’s hard to prove you’re still the champ when you don’t have any opponents, and it’s hard to plan your future when your golden opportunity implodes in scandal.
Nothing is more emblematic of the American dream than chaotic mining and drilling towns such as Williston, North Dakota, and the people who flock to them in search of fortune. And no one knows better how these communities work — and don’t — than the traveling topless dancer.
The “umami” craze has turned a much-maligned and misunderstood food additive into an object of obsession for the world’s most innovative chefs. But secret ingredient monosodium glutamate’s biggest secret may be that there was never anything wrong with it at all.
That a high-concept, fast-talking farce based on a board game was a box office bomb in 1985 is no huge mystery. But figuring out how it became an enduring favorite is a Hollywood whodunit for the ages. (The prime suspect: you, in the living room, with the remote control.)
In an economically depressed Maine county, Bill Sheldon is the kingpin of a $40 million baby-eel industry that may be doomed to extinction. Find out what happens when a community full of armed fishermen and elver dealers stop being polite and start getting real.
In 2004, David Sneddon disappeared while hiking in China. But what seemed at first like a tragic accident may be something far more sinister: His family believes he is among the thousands of civilians who have been mysteriously abducted and imprisoned by North Korean agents.
Though I’ve lived and been out in San Francisco for years, my parents are still in Taiwan and conservative — and homophobic — as the culture around them. When I was nearly “outed” me while I was there to celebrate my mother’s birthday, I didn’t want to take the opportunity to come clean.
Self-styled (literally) movie star Melissa Leo has, over the course of three decades of work, carved out an almost impossible career path for an actress: peaking in her fifties, simultaneously courting and trolling Hollywood, and not giving a shit how any of that makes her look.
Born in Germany but raised in Missouri, “Wild Bill” Suess served in the Army, then did time for various crimes. But he didn’t know what prison really was until strict immigration laws left him to fend for himself at a grim shelter in a foreign country he was now forced to call home.
In September, after a year of being bullied online, Rebecca Sedwick threw herself off a three-story cement silo, sparking an international freak-out over the responsibility social media networks like Ask.fm have in fostering this kind of harassment. But for Rebecca’s family, friends, and neighbors, the problem isn’t technology or opportunistic startups — it’s people.
In the ’90s, a gynecologist named Gao Yaojie exposed the horrifying cause of an AIDS epidemic in rural China — and the ensuing cover-up — and became an enemy of the state. Now 85, she lives in New York without her family, without her friends, and without regrets.
Julia Pastrana was born in the 1830s in Mexico, severely deformed and covered in hair, then became an international sensation. After she died in 1860, her mummified remains became an equally public curiosity, and only now, 153 years later, is she finally resting in peace.
He’s on a quest to become a millionaire by age 25, but Corey Wadden isn’t just looking out for himself. Raised in a coal mining family with an alcoholic father, Corey watched his mom make countless sacrifices for him growing up and is working to earn enough to let her retire by 50.
But retirement isn’t everything. Corey’s mom has always wanted a classic Saab, so the young entrepreneur tracked down the exact model she wants on eBay, and then saved up for it for a year.
View this image › Getty / Mark Wilson Last night, I watched the State of the Union address in a new way: without Twitter. Wow, I’m such a saint! But not looking at my laptop was harder than it sounds....
Could Twitter and Facebook already provide a reliable forecast of who will win the 2012 presidential campaign? That may be more likely than we thought. More than one in five registered voters have broadcast their picks to the world via...
One of the poorest states in the nation has invested nearly a quarter of a billion dollars and 10 years in creating a hub for Richard Branson’s space tourism company, Virgin Galactic. Some see it as the crown jewel of...
Utopia, a book by English statesman, lawyer and clergyman Thomas More (1487-1535), turns 500 years old this month. A fictional rendering of social philosophy, the book describes an exemplary society on an imaginary island in an unknown place faraway across...
No matter who wins the presidential election today, it looks like Sergey Brin will be disappointed. The Google co-founder posted to his Google+ page on Tuesday morning to explain his discouragement about election day and the state of the government in...
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